Summary of a lesson on familiarization with the outside world in an early age group “What kind of animal”

MAGAZINE Preschooler.RF

Pedagogical experience: “Introducing young children to the world around them through children’s experimentation”

(junior group)

Teacher at MBDOU "Yagodka" . Noyabrsk Eroshko E.M.

I have been working as a kindergarten teacher for 32 years. During my work, I had the opportunity to work with children of different ages. The most crucial period is the child’s adaptation to the nursery group; this is a difficult stage and at the same time interesting. When a crying baby does not want to let go of his mother, you need to gather all your skills, abilities, techniques, and be patient in order to make the baby forget about his mother, get distracted and not cry.

Working with older children has its own peculiarities. Here you need to be an older friend. A friend who is knowledgeable, able, able to help and teach. I try to be a friend to children, to understand everyone’s individuality, not only to give them new knowledge about life. But also to cultivate a positive attitude towards the world around you, towards yourself.

In my work, simply human things come to the fore: to help, to caress, to sympathize, to talk heart to heart.

The main task for me is to move forward, mastering innovative technologies, unconventional methods, but also not forgetting the good old days. I need to fill myself with knowledge to satisfy the curiosity of a modern child. I try to develop in myself such qualities of a modern educator as patience and kindness. After all, I have to work not only with children, but also with parents. Parents of children are like-minded people, helpers, and friends for me. We do one thing together - raise children...

In my work I am based on the following scientific and methodological principles: “People who have learned to observe and experiment acquire the ability to pose questions themselves and receive factual answers to them, finding themselves at a higher mental and moral level in comparison with those who have not undergone such schooling.” " (K.E. Timiryazev).

A preschool child is a researcher, showing a keen interest in various types of research activities, in particular in elementary experimentation. Experimentation permeates all areas of children's activity: eating, playing, studying, walking, sleeping... understanding the importance of experimentation in the development of cognitive activity of preschool children, trying to create conditions for their experimental activities, I began work by building a subject-development environment: arrangement of an experimentation corner, selection of equipment and materials, production of experimental games, developed a long-term plan for experimental activities, compiled a card index of experimental games for experimental activities.

The main issues planned for study are the selection of literature on conducting and organizing research activities in early preschool age in a playful way and using game characters, organization and observation of children’s activities during experimentation classes; according to the thematic plan, a series of classes and a card index were developed experiments.

Not a single educational or educational task can be successfully solved without close contact with the family and complete mutual understanding between parents and teacher. In individual conversations, consultations. At parent-teacher meetings, I convince parents of the need for daily attention to their children’s joys and sorrows.

Parents are constantly consulted on the role of experimentation in the lives of children, and advice has been developed for parents “What experiments can be carried out at home . A photo exhibition of children's experimental activities was created. The topic turned out to be quite interesting for the parents, and they gladly responded to all the suggestions. At the end of the school year, a final parent meeting was held, at which parents were presented with the results of work with children. Parents, in turn, spoke about their impressions. Thus, the efforts of the preschool institution and the family are combined to accomplish the assigned tasks.

Intensive development of children's experimentation in all its types and forms is a necessary condition for the successful development of a preschooler's personality, the development of cognitive interest, and the nurturing of the need for a holistic perception of the world around him.

At the first stage, I drew up a thematic plan for experimental activities, taking into account the age characteristics of children and gradually increasing the complexity of cognitive tasks (Appendix 1).

Work was also carried out to create a subject-development environment in the group: equipment for conducting experiments and experiments (Appendix 2).

According to the thematic plan, a series of lessons (Appendix 3) and a card index of experiments (Appendix 4) were developed.

Preschool teachers were shown the presentation “Experimental games in the younger group” (Appendix 6)

Annex 1.



Topic: “Learning about the world around us through play and experiments”

(junior group)

Goal: development of the cognitive sphere of children through inclusion in the process of experimentation.


  • form ideas about the properties and qualities of the objective world;
  • deepen understanding of living and inanimate nature;
  • promote children's participation in research and generalization of experimental results;
  • develop independent activity skills.

Appendix 2

Creating a developmental environment with the aim of developing children's experimentation in a group:

1. Experimentation corner for independent free activity and individual lessons, the content of which is:

  1. A variety of vessels from various materials of different volumes and shapes;
  2. Natural material collected together with children (pebbles, clay, sand, shells, feathers, cones, etc.);
  3. Waste material (fabrics, wooden, plastic and iron objects, etc.);
  4. Different types of paper, plasticine;
  5. Food and non-food dyes;
  6. Assistant devices (magnifying glasses, scales, magnets, etc.);
  7. Medical materials (pipettes, flasks, measuring spoons and cups, etc.);
  8. Other materials (various cereals, flour, salt, sugar, sieve).
  9. Children's aprons;
  10. Towels, rags, brush and dustpan;
  11. Experimental schemes.
  12. Long-term lesson plan for the year in the following sections:
  13. Properties of water;
  14. Air and its properties;
  15. Solid: stone; sand
  16. Paper properties

Appendix 3

Lesson notes on familiarization with the environment

Lesson 1

Program content: Introduce children to the properties of sand: sand is many grains of sand; sand can be dry or wet; wet sand takes any desired shape.

To cultivate cultural and hygienic skills, curiosity and the desire to play together.

Evoke positive emotions.

Equipment: Robes for the teacher and children, several containers with dry sand, watering cans with water, sand molds, a sheet of paper.

Vocabulary work: sand, wet, dry, dirty

Preliminary work: playing with sand while walking; examination of plot paintings on the topic: “Children are walking” ; d/games: “More or less” , “Collect in a basket” ; observations in nature

Methodological techniques: questions to children, teacher's story, experiment with sand, practical activities of children.

Progress of the lesson

Guys, Professor Znaykin again invites us to visit his laboratory. Let's go to? Let's all put on our dressing gowns, and the professor will show us a lot of new and interesting things. The children get dressed and go through.

1. Guys, what’s in my glass? (the teacher pours sand of different sizes into a slide). Sand. Right. I'll take a white piece of paper and sprinkle some grains of sand on it. Look how small they are. Each of them is clearly visible on a sheet of paper. How many grains of sand do you need to make a big pile of sand? A lot of. (children's answers). How many grains of sand are there in the sandbox? A lot of. Sand consists of many grains of sand.

Conclusion: Sand is made up of many grains of sand.

2. Guys, let's touch the sand. What kind of sand? Dry. Put your hands in the sand and then pull your hands out. Are our hands clean or dirty? Children's answers. Clean.

Now let's do an experiment with sand. Children water the sand. What happened to the sand? The sand became wet. Guys, put your hands in the sand. Get your hands out. What are your hands like? Hands are wet and dirty. Why are your hands wet? Children's answers: Because we poured water on the sand.

Sand can be dry, but if you pour water on the sand it becomes wet. Our journey through Professor Znaykin’s laboratory continues. There are two basins in front of you, one with dry sand, the other with wet sand. Now we will make pies using molds.

Let's try to make pies out of dry sand. It turns out? No. And why? The sand is dry and you can’t sculpt with it. (Children's answers). Now let’s try to sculpt from wet sand. It turns out? Yes. Why? The sand is wet. (Children's answers).

Conclusion: You can sculpt from wet sand, but not from dry sand.

Guys, it's time for us to return to the group. Let's say goodbye to Professor Znaykin.

Lesson 2

Program content: To introduce children to stones and their properties: to give an idea that stones are heavy and light; hard; can be cold or warm.

Continue teaching children to group objects by color.

Cultivate a desire to help loved ones.

Evoke positive emotions.

Equipment: Overalls; large and small stones; multi-colored small pebbles from the aquarium and matching buckets; wonderful bag; foam rubber

Vocabulary work: light, heavy, warm, cold, soft, hard

Preliminary work: looking at stones while walking; d/games: “Put it in a basket” , “Wonderful bag” ; "What colour?"

Methodological techniques: questions to children, teacher’s story, experiment with stones, practical activities of children

Progress of the lesson

Guys, Professor Znaykin came to visit us. Znaykin invites us to conduct experiments again, put on your robes. Children put on their dressing gowns and go to the table. There are stones of different sizes (large and small) on the table.

Guys, look, what is this? Stones. Take them in your hands and examine the stones. Which stones are heavy or light? Children's answers. Now let's determine whether stones are heavy or light. Children's answers. Guys, stones can be heavy and light.

Now let's play with the stones. I have two bags, we will put stones in them. We will put one bag on the windowsill, and the other bag will put it on the radiator.

Finger gymnastics is carried out.

Guys, now let's touch the stones from the bags. What kind of stones are in this bag, cold or warm? Children's answers. Children touch stones and answer the teacher’s questions. Guys, now let's try to compress the stones, the stones are compressed. No. And I have cotton wool. Let's try squeezing the cotton wool. Does cotton wool shrink? Yes. Cotton wool shrinks because it is soft, but stones are hard and cannot shrink. Guys, look, our stones are of different colors. What color are the stones? Yellow, green, red and blue. Children's answers. Let's sort the stones by color. Children arrange stones by color. Well done guys, you did a good job. What did you learn today? Let's say goodbye to the professor.

Lesson 3

Program content: Introduce children to the properties of water: water can be clear, cloudy; with the properties of paper: paper can be thick, thin, torn, wrinkled.

Give an idea that air is invisible.

Develop cognitive interests, imagination, attention, thinking.

Enrich your vocabulary.

Evoke positive emotions.

Equipment: telephone, bathrobes, glasses, cap, hippos, glass of water, glass of flour, spoons, glass bowl, plastic bags, thick and thin paper.

Vocabulary work: transparent, cloudy, light, thick

Preliminary work: examination of different types of paper; d/game: “Hide the toy” ; breathing exercise “Butterflies”

Methodological techniques: questions to children, teacher’s story, demonstration, practical activities of children

Progress of the lesson

The phone rang, Professor Znaykin is calling. He again invites us to visit him in his laboratory. Let's put our robes back on. Children wear dressing gowns. Guys, look what's on my table. There is a glass of water on the table. Is the water in the glass clear? Children's answers. Let's play a game with you: add a spoonful of flour to a glass of water and stir. What is the water like? Children's answers. Cloudy, dirty, not transparent. And why? We added flour to the water. Guys, look, I have small balls, let's put one in clear water and the other in muddy water. In what kind of water can you see the ball? Children's answers. Now guys, we know that water can be clear and cloudy.

Guys, we also don’t see the air in our room. Air is everywhere. To see it, you need to catch it. Now we will try to catch the air. The teacher distributes bags to everyone. The teacher shows the children how to catch air. Children repeat. Touch the package. What's in it? Air. The bag is full of air and looks like a pillow. Anya, what's in the bag? Now I will release the air from the bag. Why did the package become thin? Children's answers.

Well done guys, now we know that we don’t see air, but it is everywhere.

Guys, now we will play with paper. Everyone will take the paper in their hands and place it on their palm. Breathing game "Blow" . We've played, and now let's do an experiment with paper.

Take a piece of paper in your hands. Touch the paper with your hands, what kind of paper? Is the paper thin or thick? Children's answers.

Now let's try to crumple the paper, show us what happened. The paper was crumpled. Try tearing the paper. It broke, why? The paper is thin. That's right, the paper is thin, it tears.

Do the same with thick paper.

Conclusion: Thin paper tears, but thick paper does not. Thin paper wrinkles, but thick paper does not.

Guys, you liked the experiments with Professor Znaykin. Children repeat what they did today. They say goodbye and take off their dressing gowns.

Appendix 4

Card index of experiments

Experiments with water

Topic: “What will happen?”

Purpose: To give an idea that some substances dissolve in water.

Equipment: Two glasses of water, some sand and sugar.

Procedure: The teacher invites the children to see what happens if they put a spoonful of sand in a glass of water and stir it. Then he demonstrates it. Sand mixed in a glass of water made the water opaque and cloudy. But after a while it settled to the bottom of the glass, and the water became clear again. Next, the teacher does the same with sugar, drawing the children’s attention to the fact that the sugar did not cloud the water and did not settle to the bottom, but disappeared. What happened? Sugar dissolved in water, but sand did not.

Conclusion: Some substances dissolve in water, and some do not.

Experiments with sand

Topic: "Traces"

Purpose: To give an idea that marks and prints remain on wet sand.

Equipment: Container with sand, jug with water.

Procedure: The teacher invites the children to leave handprints on dry sand. Are the prints clearly visible? (No). The teacher wets the sand, mixes it, and levels it. He suggests leaving handprints on the wet sand. Is it working now? (Yes). Look, every finger is visible. Now we will make the footprints. What do you see? Why were there handprints and footprints? (Because the sand was wet).

Conclusion: Traces and imprints remain on wet sand, but not on dry sand.

Experiments with air

Topic: “Let’s drown the toys”

Purpose: To give an idea that air is lighter than water.

Equipment: Container with water. Rubber toys.

Progress: The teacher shows the children a rubber toy. Then he presses it several times, directing the stream of air coming out of the hole of the toy towards the child so that he feels it. Why is this happening? (Because there is air in the toy). The teacher invites the children to lower a rubber toy to the bottom of a basin of water. What's happening? (The toy floats up.) This happens because there is air in the toy, and air is lighter than water.

Conclusion: Toys filled with air do not sink because air is lighter than water.

Experiments with stones

Topic: “Light - Heavy”

Purpose: To give an idea that stones can be heavy and light.

Equipment: Three stones of sharply contrasting size.

Progress: The teacher invites the children to look at the stones. What are they? (Big and small). Then the teacher asks the child to take the smallest stone. The baby picks it up easily. The teacher draws the children's attention to the fact that the stone is light. Next, the teacher suggests taking a larger stone. The child picks up a stone, the teacher draws attention to the fact that the stone is heavy and not easy to lift. Then the child is asked to pick up the largest stone. The child cannot complete the task. Why? (Because the stone is very heavy).

Conclusion: Stones can be heavy or light. It depends on their size.

Experiments with paper

Topic: “Paper leaves”

Purpose: To give an idea that the paper is light.

Equipment: Sheet of paper, container with water.

Procedure: The teacher shows the children a piece of paper and asks them to determine whether it is heavy or light. Then he suggests checking it out. The teacher places a piece of paper on the child’s palm and invites him to blow on it. What happened? (The leaf flew off the palm.) Why? (Because it's lightweight). Next, the teacher lowers a sheet of paper into a container of water. What happened? (The leaf floats). Why didn't the paper sink? (Because it's light).

Conclusion: The paper is lightweight, deflatable and does not float in water.

Appendix 5

Parent meeting script

Topic: Experimental and experimental activities of young children

Form of the meeting: workshop-seminar

Purpose: To form an idea among parents about the experimental activities of young children and its significance.

Equipment: Five transparent glasses, gouache in 4 colors, a brush, a container of sand, a container of water, pebbles, a feather, a notebook sheet and a sheet of thick cardboard.

Meeting plan

  1. Theoretical material. Message for parents "Little Explorers" .
  2. Practical part. Carrying out basic experiments together with parents.

Progress of the meeting

1 part.

"Little Explorers"

Many children’s actions can cause bewilderment to adults: “He hid grandma’s umbrella!” I fed the cat with a spoon! I poured water into my grandfather’s galoshes and put my hat on the dog!”

But if you analyze such situations, you will notice that these are not just pranks, but actions of active experimentation in understanding the properties of the surrounding world. There was an indicative and exploratory orientation in the baby’s behavior early on. But now he is interested not only in the purely external characteristics of things, the baby is trying to establish some hidden features of the observed object.

Why is grandma's umbrella hidden? Firstly, this is a thing that, at the press of a button, turns into a dome, which, you see, is no less interesting than playing with a “singing” top. In addition, I would like to see how my grandmother will look for him and say: “Oh, I’m old! Again I put my umbrella somewhere and I can’t find it! Alyoshenka, look with your sharp eyes, where is my umbrella? This is real social experimentation.

Why did the baby decide to feed the cat with a spoon? Because in yesterday’s game he fed the toy Kotofeich with a spoon, watered him from a cup, and now it seems unfair to him that the family’s favorite cat Vaska is deprived of such attention. This action is a game by analogy, transferred to a new situation, which indicates the high intelligence of the baby.

Why did you pour water into grandfather’s galoshes? Grandfather boasted about his galoshes: they are old, but they don’t get wet! The kid tested the item for its functional suitability, and these were the results. The teacher encourages children to formulate their own conclusions. Part 2.

Elementary experiments:

Multi-colored water"; "Sand" ; “Let's let the air out of the glass” ; “Let’s wash the pebbles” ; “Thin - thick” , “Coloring water”

Appendix 6

Consultation for parents “Small steps into a wonderful world!”

Early age is a period of active experimentation of a child with the objective world. Everything that surrounds the baby - things that belong to adults, toys, animals, plants, water, sand and much more - arouses his interest. He loves to explore new objects, experiment with various substances and materials: water, sand, snow, clay, paints. Adults often doubt that young children can seriously learn “important” things. However, it is not. In the process of such research, the baby’s curiosity develops, his ideas about the world around him expand, the child gains rich sensory experience, and receives a powerful impetus for the development of intelligence.

It is important to remember that the formation of a child’s intellectual sphere is carried out not only with the targeted guidance of adults, but also in free, independent practical activity. In the process of free experimentation, the child receives new, sometimes unexpected information, establishes practical connections between his own actions and the phenomena of the surrounding world, and makes some kind of discoveries. Experimentation stimulates the child to search for new actions and contributes to the development of flexibility of thinking. Independent experimentation gives the child the opportunity to try out different methods of action, while removing the fear of making mistakes and the constraint of thinking with ready-made action patterns. The role of parents in this process is not to immediately show how to do it correctly, but to stimulate the child’s interest in subjects, encourage independent research, and support his curiosity.

A child’s pronounced curiosity is the most important indicator of his successful mental development. It manifests itself in the fact that the baby:

  1. actively strives for new experiences, loves to observe others;
  2. quickly discovers new things and strives to immediately explore them;
  3. participates with interest in games with water, sand, and experimenting with various substances suggested by adults;
  4. spends a long time experimenting with enthusiasm on his own, imitating an adult and inventing new actions;
  5. rejoices at his discoveries and strives to share them with adults.

It is imperative to keep in mind that a child’s full mastery of objective activities occurs only in the process of communicating with adults.

There is an experimental laboratory in which all the necessary equipment for conducting experiments is collected.

  • Appendix 7. Presentation “Experimentation in the younger group”

Experiments with water

Game "Bulbochki" . Children put rubber toys into the water and watch how air bubbles come out of the water.

“Air bubbles” - using a straw you can make bubbles in a glass

“Coloring water” - it’s fun to make colorful water with your children using a brush and gouache.

“From empty to empty” - Children love to pour water from one vessel to another. Shampoo bottles and jars of different shapes and sizes are used for this game.

“Balls in the Water” – Train fine motor skills

Experiments with sand

To give an idea that sand is many grains of sand.

Sand can be dry or wet. Dry sand may crumble, wet sand

takes any desired shape.

“Games with turntables” “Let’s make a breeze”

"Blow up the balloons"

"My funny ringing ball"

“Blow up the balloons” “My funny ringing ball”

Give an idea that the ball jumps high because there is a lot of air in it.

"Boat, sail"

Give an idea that objects can move with the help of air

  • Perfection of self-education:
  • Getting acquainted with modern techniques on the topic of children's experimentation

— I take part in pedagogical skills competitions and innovative project competitions.

  • Cooperation with kindergarten teachers and parents.

I annually conduct consultations on the topic of children's experimentation, business experimental games, seminars on problem situations, open viewings of experiments and classes, individual conversations on the topic of environmental education and the role of the family in solving experimental problems. I also annually organize various competitions: competitions for crafts made from natural materials, a competition for crafts made from “waste materials”

Visual information for parents is constantly updated.

When working with children, I always try to promote the development of cognitive activity, curiosity, and the desire for independent knowledge and reflection. Every little child is a little explorer, discovering the world around him with joy and surprise.

My task is to not let this desire fade away.

Literature studied:

  • “Cognitive and research activity as a direction for the development of a preschooler’s personality. Experiences, experiments, games. compiled by N.V. Nishcheva 2013
  • “Experimental activities in preschool educational institutions” L.I. Odintsova 2013, methodological manual.
  • “Sand Games” , Igor Pelinsky
  • "Experimental activities in preschool educational institutions" . Lesson notes for different age groups. N.V. Nishcheva
  • “Project method in organizing cognitive and research activities in kindergarten . N.V. Nishcheva;
  • Martynova E.A., Suchkova I.M. Organization of experimental activities for children 2-7 years old: thematic planning, recommendations, lesson notes
  • Activities of preschoolers in a children's experimental laboratory. M.P. Kostyuchenko, N.R. Kamalova, publishing house "Teacher"
  • “Elements of sand therapy” - development of young children N.V. Zelentsova-Peshkova
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