Library "Programs of education and training in kindergarten"
Generally edited by:
Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences T. S. Komarova, Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences V. V. Gerbova.
The program for the education and training of children of the second younger group is printed with corrections and additions according to the text of the book “The program for education and training in kindergarten” edited by M. A. Vasilyeva, V. V. Gerbova, T. S. Komarova (4th ed. , corrections and additions).
Compiled by M. B. Zatsepina
Contributing authors
A. V. Antonova,
Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences;
N. A. ArapovaPiskareva;
N. E. Veraksa, Doctor of Psychological Sciences;
V. V. Gerbova,
candidate of pedagogical sciences;
N. F. Gubanova,
candidate of pedagogical sciences;
O. V. Dybina,
Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences;
M. B. Zatsepina,
Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences;
T. S. Komarova,
Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences;
G. M. Lyamina,
candidate of pedagogical sciences;
V. I. Petrova,
Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences;
O. A. Solomennikova,
candidate of pedagogical sciences;
E.Ya.
Stepanenkova, candidate of pedagogical sciences.
From the compiler
The effectiveness and quality of the pedagogical process depend on a number of factors, and primarily on whether upbringing and training is based on the age characteristics of children.
Pedagogical science, putting forward central educational and educational tasks for a certain period of childhood, recommends techniques and methods for their implementation, substantiates their correspondence to each year of a child’s life, in order to equip practitioners with effective professional means for the successful development of a group of children in a group and each pupil.
This manual, dedicated to the issues of education, training and development of children in the second junior group of kindergarten, is also based on the age principle.
One of the features of the psychological portrait of a child of the fourth year of life is the “threeyear crisis.” Communicating with children experiencing a crisis is not easy, since the child’s intentions take on a stubbornly persistent “I want!” or the categorical “I won’t!” The crisis is generated by the fact that the child begins to perceive himself as an independent person, separate from others (and from his beloved adult), and he has the right to respect for himself and his intentions. Adults need to learn, without pressure or physical coercion, to reorient a “naughty” child to something else, to tell him how interesting it is to go somewhere (to see something, find something, etc.).
The source of development and expansion of children's horizons and ideas is direct observations (in kindergarten and beyond). The ability to observe and draw simple conclusions in a child of the fourth year of life becomes more perfect; the desire for active action and interest in means and methods of practical action as the basis for the development of manual skills increases.
A child of this age develops an interest in patterns and the opportunity to try to reproduce them.
Children are more successful in mastering a new way of activity if its goal is clear and the motivation for achieving it, accepted by the children, is created.
The fourth year of life is important for the further development of the child’s attitude towards himself. A general positive attitude towards oneself is expressed in satisfaction with one’s own achievements, approved by adults. But you should very gently and tactfully develop the ability to think critically about your actions and the results of your activities.
Memory processes at this age remain involuntary, but children successfully remember what they liked. The child's ability to control his attention is very small (it is especially difficult to direct attention to anything using words). Speech at this age remains situational and dialogical, but becomes more complex and developed. Objects and phenomena are perceived holistically, although some sensory attributes of objects begin to stand out as independent. And so on.
This methodological manual, which includes a program for working with children of the fourth year of life and the conditions, methods, techniques for implementing program tasks, will become for teachers (we really hope so!) a reference book designed to answer all emerging questions related to the specifics of work in second junior group of kindergarten.
Organization of education for children in the second junior group
Work with threeyearold children should be mainly aimed at developing ideas about set, at perceiving the differences between sets by comparing their numbers, and at developing the ability to determine the equality and inequality of the numbers of sets. Such a comparison can be made by children who do not yet know the number. It is important that they learn from observation that sets can vary in size. This will arouse their interest in comparison and the need to identify differences in numeral words based on counting. Teaching counting and naming sets of numerals will be carried out with children four years old and older.
A study of the development of children from the age of one and a half shows that the first ideas about set begin to form in early childhood, when children master speech. But the process of developing children's ideas about plurality and number must be guided.
Children of the third and fourth years of life must first be taught to practically mutually compare the elements of one and another set, compare small sets with each other and practically determine which is larger, smaller or equal in number of elements. The concept of set is the basis of all mathematical concepts. Therefore, it is necessary to pay special attention to it in all kindergarten groups.
A set can be perceived by different analyzers: sounds  by ear, invisible sets of objects  by touch, produced movements  by the muscular sense, by a kinesthetic analyzer.
A small child perceives a set as a single whole when it is composed of identical elements, but one must be taught to perceive a set as a unity even if its elements are not identical.
The sameness of the elements of a set can be determined by different characteristics. For example, for cubes of different colors, the common feature will be the shape. But many cubes can be specified based on color, for example, red cubes, green cubes. So, we need to teach children to perceive a set as a whole, highlighting the most essential feature in it, for example, the shape of a cube, but at the same time be able to group its elements according to another feature (color), i.e., highlight its parts in this set.
Learning to see and compare sets, comparing their elements with each other, i.e., establishing a correspondence between them, means creating the primary signal basis for a future counting operation.
The process of teaching counting to young children requires consistency and careful thought through methodological techniques. Mastery of number is an indicator of already, to a certain extent, abstract thinking, which does not develop in a child immediately, but in the process of many actions with sets. Therefore, we first need to teach children to compare sets element by element, without yet counting them, and thereby ensure the transition from the perception of concrete sets and their comparison to the activity of counting and the formation of an abstract concept of number.
Studying the activity of counting in children also convinces us that it is only in everyday life and in play, that is, from time to time, that children cannot be taught counting and number. The game and the life around it attract the child not yet by quantity, but by the richness of other aspects, for example, when playing with a doll, the child does not need to count the number of eyes, hands, etc. Children look at the eyes and even call them the word two,
but for them it is not a number reflecting the equivalence of any combination of two objects, but only one of the signs of a doll.
Therefore, a child who shows two eyes, two arms, two legs on a doll does not see the same quantity in the environment: when asked to show two Christmas trees, he points to three, etc. Research convinces that the word two
for a child does not serve as an indicator a certain class of sets.
“Additional” learning does not achieve success because children are placed in conditions of a very complex complex stimulus: in play, in the practical life of a child, the quantitative side and counting are only one of the very weak components.
That is why, under specific conditions, watching fish in an aquarium, a child may be able to distinguish two fish from three, but in other conditions he will not cope with the same task, because the stronger components of the complex stimulus, due to negative induction, will cause inhibition of the weaker ones. . Observing swimming fish or preparing the table for breakfast or lunch, of course, displaces those weak incidental impressions about the quantity that the child received in these situations. Therefore, special classes are needed where the multitude and its numbers would be the strongest stimuli, and all other components would be weaker, subordinate to them.
Special mathematics lessons can be carried out simultaneously with the entire group of threeyearold children, but they need to be clearly thought out. In some cases, taking into account the developmental characteristics of children and the living conditions of the group, it is permissible to conduct classes in small groups of four to six people, but provided that all subgroups are covered in approximately one or two days. The advantage of collective forms of work is that a unified focus of children's interests is created, cooperation and mutual learning are carried out.
Classes should be held once a week, at certain times and days. This order creates the desired attitude in children, increases interest, and provides optimal learning opportunities.
The duration of classes should not exceed 10—
15 minutes, and then gradually increase to 20 minutes.
To maintain children's attention, it is necessary to provide
in the classroom variety and change of didactic material
or a change in methodological techniques.
In classes with young children, it is advisable to use game techniques, which, however, should not be an end in themselves, but only a means in achieving program objectives. Only individual children need individual lessons who have missed a lot of classes due to illness or who are poorly able to assimilate program material when the interval between classes is one week (due to low mobility of the nervous system).
§ 2. Program material for children three years old
Work on developing ideas about set with children of the fourth year of life can first take place in games with various aids.
Already in the second year of life, mastering speech, the child easily learns the differences between singular and plural endings. He himself says: “Give me a flag” or “Give me flags”; “This is a doll” or “These are dolls.” In the second or third year of life, while playing with nesting dolls (matryoshka dolls, boxes, eggs, bowls, cones, etc.), the child, taking them apart, selects one doll, another, etc., and is glad that there are many of them. He takes out boxes, bowls one from another, forming many bowls, many boxes. Removing ring by ring from the cone
Well, he rejoices that now he has a lot of rings. By actively working with these aids, he, as it were, “creates” a multitude, which he then tries to assemble into a single whole. It is important that the teacher emphasizes in words what the child practically does: “You have a lot of rings: this, this, this and this...” she says, emphasizing each element of the many scattered by the child. “There are a lot of rings. Come on, let’s put them all together and put them on a stick.” The child begins to put on rings without yet monitoring their size. It is important for him to bring them together, to create a single whole. He often accompanies his actions with the words: “More, more, more.” “They collected all the rings, there are many of them on a stick, but there is only one stick,” sums up the teacher.
Gradually, you need to teach your child to collect rings on a stick, taking into account their size. For this purpose, he is asked to find the largest ring, after putting it on he again looks for the largest one, etc.
Fixing attention on the separation of rings, nesting dolls, bowls, etc., the teacher teaches the child the method of dividing a set into its elements and the method of combining these elements into a single whole, emphasizing the quantitative side, the composition of a set of elements; teaches to see “one” and “many” and at the same time
It’s time to perceive the size of individual elements of the whole: “One nesting doll, and there are many nesting dolls in it, and all the nesting dolls are of different sizes.”
It is necessary to acquaint children of the fourth year of life in more detail with the multitude as a single whole, consisting of homogeneous objects. First, you need to teach children to imagine a whole from homogeneous objects, as well as to isolate elements, teach them to see them within the whole.
Therefore, in the first lessons on getting to know the set, it is necessary for children to understand the relationship between the concepts of “one” and “many”, to understand that the set consists of elements, that is, individual objects. Thus, children first become acquainted with a discrete set.
Combining elements into a single whole and splitting the whole into elements  these two processes must occur simultaneously.
The second task is to teach to see the constituent parts of a single set of dolls  dolls with red bows and dolls with white bows, i.e. to teach children to group sets according to different characteristics.
The third, no less important task is to show children, using specific sets, before teaching numbers, that sets can be equal or unequal in the number of elements included in them, that is, different in their power. For these purposes, it is necessary to teach children practical techniques for establishing correspondence between elements of sets: teach them to compare elements of one set with elements
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another and, based on such a comparison, see the number of which of them is greater and which is less, or they are equal, without yet calling these sets a number. This will form the first signal basis of the future counting operation.
Since the quantitative perceptions of a set of objects in young children are still closely related to the spatial arrangement of the elements of the set, one of the programmatic tasks of teaching is the differentiation of quantitative and spatial perceptions. This differentiation is facilitated by the development of correct hand and eye movement skills.
Thus, the program for threeyearold children will be as follows.
Children need to be taught:
to form sets themselves, composing them from individual objects, and to single out one object from the set, to lead to an understanding of the relationship between “one” and “many”; group sets according to different criteria; find “many” objects and “one” object in the environment (“Which objects are there many in a group, which one is only one?” or: “There is one car, but it has many wheels”; or: “There are many chairs, tables, but one aquarium , but there are a lot of fish in it”, etc.); use techniques for superimposing and applying elements of one set to elements of another, arranging the elements in order, from left to right horizontally, while working with the right hand; when comparing sets, correlate the elements of the sets one to one, observing exactly the intervals between the elements; see and establish equality and inequality between the numbers of sets without resorting to numbers.
Practice the ability to reproduce by ear, by imitating, the number of claps or taps within one to three, without counting or naming the number. For example: “Knock as many times as I knocked” or: “Take as many toys as I knocked”, “Show a card with the same number of carrots drawn as I knocked.”
Accustom children to understand the following expressions and actively use them in their speech: so many

how many, equally, more

less
(by quantity),
one at a time, a lot;
teach to coordinate words
many, one
in gender, number and case with nouns; understand the meaning of the question “how much?” When answering, use the expression: “The same amount here as there” or: “Equally here.”
To distinguish between sizes, children must be taught to compare objects by length (on contrasting sizes), denoting the comparison results with the words: longer

shorter, identical (
equal), thicker
equal in thickness), larger
smaller
equal in volume). When familiarizing yourself with the form, it is necessary to teach children to distinguish the following geometric shapes: circle, square, tri
a square, and also find appropriate shapes in the environment (for example, a ball, a plate are round, and a book, box, cube, sheet of paper has corners); identify these forms using tactilemotor and visual examination techniques and reproduce the shape of objects in the drawing.
The development of spatial concepts should begin with orientation in the parts of one’s body and, in accordance with them, determination of spatial directions: ahead
 where the face is;
behind
(behind)—where the back is;
on the right
(to the right)  where the right hand is (the one with which I hold the spoon, I draw);
to the left
(to the left)  where the left hand is.
Children should know what they do with which hand, when and with which hand they perform certain actions, for example, with which hand they eat, draw, say hello, etc.
It is necessary to teach children to simply navigate in time: practically distinguish and name morning, day, evening, night.
Sample activities with sets in a group of threeyearold children
Classes conducted with children, as mentioned above, should contribute to the formation of ideas about sets, the development of skills to group sets according to different criteria, compare sets element by element, as well as mastery of techniques of superposition and application.
In these classes, the quantitative side is the main focus of children's attention; clarifies the understanding of the relationships between one
and
more.
Children become familiar with the fact that every set consists of individual homogeneous elements, which in the future, in the language of arithmetic, will mean that every number consists of units. Objects that are familiar to children, but connected together, grouped according to different characteristics, are presented to children as if from a different, new side for them, and this arouses interest in them.
Repeated repetition of the same words in the presence of different materials, accompanying the activities of children and their observations, contributes to the assimilation of new terms that gradually enter speech. In these classes, the quantitative aspect is mainly emphasized, but when grouping the same objects according to different criteria, other aspects are not omitted: color, shape. Children begin to understand that sets can be formed in different ways. It is not so much the objects themselves that become irritants, but rather their qualities, and when comparing the elements of sets, their spatialquantitative relationships become irritants: children rejoice not so much in what they see cubes, ducks and other things,
how much is it that there are many of them, that they themselves can divide into... for example, cubes on red and yellow or ducks on gray and white.
It is important that new knowledge is always based on previously acquired knowledge, and that children are able to apply the acquired knowledge in other types of activities, i.e., in different conditions.
In one of the first lessons, children learn
Education is multiplicity  that every totality is made up of
from separate individual objects and that it can be
nieMiezT°mVnozh»sDtvG is fragmented into separate items. In connection with
one object, and with this children get acquainted with expressions
many, one, one at a time, none.
Here's roughly how such a lesson might go. Children are asked to indicate where there are many toys, each take one toy, and then all together make a lot of toys. The teacher brings in a tray on which there are cubes of two colors in an amount equal to the number of children. The children greet the tray with the exclamation: “Wow, that’s a lot!” The cubes are distributed to the children one at a time. At first, children are attracted by the color of the cubes, they look at them and each other. Wanting to draw the children's attention to the number of cubes, the teacher asks each person how many cubes he has. Summarizing the children's answers, she emphasizes that everyone has one cube, but there is not a single one on the tray. Then everyone puts only one cube on the tray, and the multitude grows before the children's eyes. The teacher now draws the children’s attention only to the fact that there are again a lot of cubes on the tray, but the children have none. “How did this happen?”  the teacher asks and explains herself: “Everyone put only one cube: one cube Vasya, one cube Zhenya, etc., but together they got a lot of cubes.” She then asks individual children if they have any blocks. “No,” the children answer. And the teacher emphasizes: “No one has cubes.” After that, she gives one cube to four or five children, asking which of them has how many, and she herself summarizes their answers: “Lena, Valya, Vova... one cube each, the rest of the children don’t have one, but on the tray there are a lot of cubes." Then all the children again receive one cube each, note that the teacher does not have a single cube left, and all the children have one. The teacher shows the children two shelves where there is not a single cube, and asks them to think about what needs to be done so that there are a lot of cubes on the shelves.
The children answer that they all need to put their own blocks. The teacher suggests putting all the red cubes on one shelf, and all the blue ones on the other. Each child should think about which shelf he will put his cube on. Children place one brick on a shelf and watch as more and more bricks appear on each shelf. The teacher, naming the children's names, says that each one placed only one cube, but together there were many of them.
The cubes are replaced by ducks (gray drakes and white ducks) in accordance with the number of children, and
same exercise.
During the lesson, it is necessary to encourage children to use the words themselves, not one, one at a time.
“How many ducks did we take from the tray?”  “One at a time.”  “How many ducks are left on the tray?”  "None".
Then the children take turns lowering the ducks into two prepared basins of water, and they are asked to place the gray ducks in one basin and the white ducks in the other. The children's attention is fixed on the fact that there were a lot of ducks and the children divided them by color: “Now there are a lot of gray ducks in one basin, and a lot of white ducks in the other basin.”
Then the activity turns into a game. For a long time, children usually hear statements that there are a lot of ducks in the basin or there are none at all.
The knowledge acquired by children must be consolidated. It is necessary to show in the next lesson that any set is made up of individual objects: from one, another, etc. However, in order to connect with the previous lesson, it is important to start a repeated lesson by using one of the previous materials.
With threeyearold children, you need to conduct three or four such classes, changing the material all the time. As a result, children begin to use new words relatively freely and tell how they themselves made up “many.”
In the examples given, children learn to see that a set has different parts, such as red and blue cubes or gray and white ducks. Another option for dividing the set based on color can be used. After handing out the cubes to the children, ask how many cubes each person has and what color. And then offer to bring only red cubes to the tray, and then only blue ones. Summarizing that there are a lot of cubes on the tray, it must be emphasized that some of them are red and some are blue. In this way, the teacher will teach children to see not only the set as a whole, but also its component parts, each of which differs from the other in the color of the individual cubes. Here you can, by comparing both parts element by element, determine which cubes are larger (for example, a set consisting of red cubes is larger than a set of blue cubes).
Repeated observations of such activities show that children are interested in them. More than once in their games, children have sorted through sets and composed them, but the subject of their attention was never the formation of a set from separate individual objects or a single set consisting of different parts. This is new, based on the familiar, and arouses children’s interest in the activity.
In the following lessons, children are taught to find the location of a set in the environment and pre
"a lot" and "ovin" /
in the environment. metas that are in the singular (sets consisting of one element). At first, children easily identify and name objects in the room in the singular, and usually find it difficult to find aggregates; some cannot independently identify even the aggregates that are in their field of vision. Children name only those aggregates that the teacher points out to them: “Look at what we have a lot on the carpet, on the shelf.” The question helps children divide the room into separate areas, directs their attention to one of them, and thanks to this, children see a group of homogeneous objects concentrated in this area.
There are threeyearold children who cope better with the task, but first of all single out only those sets of objects that are spatially combined into a group (for example, fish in an aquarium; pencils standing in a glass on a shelf; dolls sitting on a sofa in a doll's corner; the wheels of a car, the legs of a horse, etc.), i.e. they name the totality that, as a single whole, falls into their field of vision. But almost none of the children at first name those objects that seem to immediately catch the eye, for example, many tables, chairs, the children themselves, etc.
What is the reason for such difficulties? To find a variety of a certain type of objects placed in a room, it is necessary to analyze the surrounding environment from several angles at once, and synthesize it only according to one  a quantitative characteristic. In such cases, it is necessary to isolate any one object from the complex situation of the room, focus attention only on it and, distracting from all others, mentally combine similar objects into a single whole, into a single set, although in practice they remain scattered throughout the room . This requires abstracting quantity from the spatial arrangement of objects in a room, overcoming their spatial relationships and mentally combining objects into one set.
Despite the difficulties, children always show great interest in completing such tasks. This interest is due to the fact that children approach their familiar environment from a new side, still unknown to them, and this captivates them.
The task of teaching is to direct children’s attention to spatialquantitative analysis, to develop the ability
abstract the quantitative side of objects, the ability to mentally synthesize identical elements into a single set.
Let us give an approximate list of those activities with the help of which you can come to a solution to this problem.
First, children can arrange objects on different strips, one on the right and one on the left. Children are asked to go to the left, on the red stripe, to put (place) only one mushroom, and to put many mushrooms on the green stripe on the right. In the future, the task can be changed: for example, put a red stripe on the right, and a green one on the left, etc., but leave the number of objects the same on the left and right (on the left  one, and on the right  many); then, without moving the strips, change the number of fungi on them (on the left  many, on the right  one). It is important to teach children to listen to instructions about the number and location of objects, to teach them to associate the quantity either with the color of the stripes or with their spatial
location.
Another option for the activity may be a different arrangement of stripes: one is at the top, and the other is below it. In this case, children will also associate the number of objects, such as circles, with the color of the stripes and their location!.
After completing such tasks, the teacher asks the children on which strip and how many circles each person put. It is very important, as experience has shown, to teach children to connect sensory perception with a word  not only heard, but also pronounced by the child himself  to transfer practical action into loud speech.
Third lesson option. Children are invited to find many objects and one object on tables specially prepared for this. In such cases, the child must find many objects (many, one) and bring them. Let us describe the organization of such a lesson.
On one table there is one cone, one cup, one dog, one bear, one car, etc. On the other tables these same toys are arranged in groups: on one table there are many cones, on another there are many cups, on the third there are many dogs and etc. Children look for the quantity indicated to them.
Activities may vary in difficulty depending on the developmental level of individual children. The task: “Bring a lot of cups” reveals everything that the child must do: distinguish between where there is one and where there are many cups. The task: “Bring as many identical toys as you want” requires independent selection, which is more difficult for a child. Therefore, before the start of the lesson, it is important to draw the children’s attention to the arrangement of objects on the tables, invite them to look at them, say that on one of the tables the objects are located one at a time, and on the other  in groups (many). These terms are already known to children, and in this lesson they are reinforced.
Fourth option. In this lesson, the toys are arranged differently: for example, on one table the teacher puts many bears and one dog, on another  one bear and many dogs, etc., i.e. the same group is represented in one case in the singular , and in the other  in aggregate. The task is complicated by the fact that children are asked to simultaneously find “one” and “many.” Children do not bring toys, as in the previous lesson, but, having found them, stay at a table and tell the others what they found. This develops children's speech, teaches them to use words
and
many,
agreeing the first of them in gender, number and case with the noun.
Usually, at first, children name only toys, and then a numeral, for example: “There are many cups,” “There is only one bear.” The numeral in this formulation plays the role of a predicate, and, as is known, the predicate is more active than the definition. This construction of the phrase indicates that the child’s thought is aimed at searching and highlighting the quantitative side. Therefore, for this stage, such a formulation cannot be considered erroneous: it is quite natural. Before the lessons, the kids can’t say that either. They usually name items and their quantity separately. Seeing a lot of cups, the baby says, using the plural form he knows: “Cups.” “How many cups?” asks his teacher. “A lot,” the child answers. “There are a lot of cups,” the teacher herself formulates, and the child repeats after her. “And what else do you see?”  “Bear.”  “How many bears?”  “One.” “There are many cups, but only one bear,” says the teacher, and the child repeats after her. Thus, children gradually learn the structure of a simple sentence, which they begin to pronounce independently: “There are many cups” or “There is only one bear.”
The teacher can try to combine these two sentences into one: “There are many cups, but one bear.” Children should also be taught another formulation, where the numeral becomes a definition: “Many cups and one bear.” Children easily learn such formulations if in numeracy classes attention is paid not only to the development of perceptions and ideas, but also to the development of speech.
After a similar series of exercises, which allows them to see and compare many objects and one, children become able to find any sets in the environment. However, this requires a known sequence  external
It is then advisable to place groups of toys and individual toys on different objects (cabinets, shelves, tables and windows). Offering to find many toys and one, the teacher lists those parts of the room and objects where many and individual toys can be located. This expands the field of observation of children.
A complication in subsequent lessons is that sets are no longer prepared in advance: they are always presented in a group and must be found by children in a natural setting. But first, children’s attention can be directed to different parts of the room: invite them to look at the floor, walls, ceiling, windows: “Look everywhere.”
Such a task, as mentioned above, requires a young child to have very complex mental activity and the ability to analyze the environment. Therefore, only as a result of carrying out the abovedescribed classes do children begin to find sets in any conditions: first, those of them that are spatially located in one field of view, and then  as a result of repeated exercises  those that are scattered in space, but are mentally generalized by the children. In such classes, children’s interest in the quantitative side of objects in the environment develops and increases: children themselves begin to note what previously passed their attention. For example, that on different walls of the room there are many small paintings, but only one large one.
Consequently, based on the sensory perception of a set of several elements and comparing it with a set consisting of one element, children form a logical idea of the set as a unity, always consisting of individual objects, and this set is already to a certain extent independent of the spatial location its elements. Such an idea of the set already contains a share of abstraction, although it is still based on its sensory perception.
These new ideas gradually begin to be reflected in the speech of children. If the smallest child, following the elements of a concretely perceived multiplicity of objects, accompanies his observations with the word more, more
and calls the word “
many”
a single visually perceived set, then the child begins to generalize the elements of the set mentally, because in his direct perception the individual objects continue to remain separated in space.
This is the sequence of formation in children of a general idea of the multitude as a single whole.
Once the ability to distinguish between “many” and “one” becomes stronger, you can use them in other activities.
activities, for example: making a lot of balls and one plate, sticking a lot of small flags and one big one, etc. It is impossible to start differentiating the ideas “many” and “one” with visual activity, because in these classes the quantitative aspect is not the main one for children. Now they hear and pay attention to how many and what objects need to be sculpted or glued. Quantitative relationships in these classes still remain incidental for children, however, having been formed in special classes, they play their role in visual activity.
Thus, at a certain stage of development, it is very important to use the acquired knowledge in other activities, due to which it will become more effective and meaningful. At the same time, this knowledge will be included in increasingly diverse connections, and the establishment of diverse interassociative connections contributes to the mental development of children.
Comparison of sets by establishing correspondence 
Before teaching children to count using numerals, they should be taught the techniques of mutual comparison of elements of one set with the elements of another  techniques of superimposing one set on another, and then techniques of applying one set to another.
The simplest method is overlay. The elements of the set in such cases must be placed in a row. You should place objects on the drawings with your right hand from left to right in order, one object after another. The teacher shows on the board how to place objects: which side to start from, then invites the children to show with their finger the direction of movement of the hand from left to right.
Program objectives for this lesson:
learn to put toys on their images in the same quantity;
distinguish between the right and left hand and the direction of movement of the hand from left to right;
teach to use expressions as much

how much
when describing what has been done.
Children are given cards with objects drawn on them in a row; on one of the cards there are, for example, two mushrooms, on the other  three. In addition, each child is given a box with fungi (objects), and the number of them is greater than what is shown on the card. Before starting work, the teacher shows and tells how to apply mushrooms. The number of fungi on the card changes: having laid out the fungi on the first card, the children move on to the next one (with three fungi), etc. In the future, the number of fungi can be increased to five, since the set is not yet expressed in numbers. It is important for children to feel that there are many
different in number, not yet counting them. They should develop an interest in how to distinguish between these sets,
i.e. to the account.
Fungi can be replaced by fish, rings, circles. But no matter how the items change, they must be put in as many as given on the card. Children begin to understand that quantity does not depend on the nature of objects, that it can be equal for different objects forming a set.
So gradually the ideas about the equivalence of sets expand, children learn the meaning of words as much

How many.
It is very important to activate children’s speech. “How many circles did you put in, Valya?” •— asks the teacher. “A lot,” the child usually says. “That’s right, you put as many circles as there are mushrooms.” The teacher suggests repeating this sentence; Gradually, children themselves begin to use such expressions. In order for knowledge to become more durable, it is very important to say out loud what the child did and what he did.
The technique of superimposition contributes to the fact that children’s attention is increasingly distracted from the objects themselves and is fixed on the equal power of sets and the correspondence of individual elements presented in drawings and objects.
Children should be immediately warned that the mushrooms should be placed only on their pictures, that the mushrooms can remain in the box if all the pictures are already closed. Such a warning is necessary because not all children immediately relate one element of the set to another, even when overlapping.
To summarize, the teacher should not limit herself to a silent check and a general conclusion about the correct completion of the task: she should ask one or two children how they completed the task (“I put one on each picture of a fungus
fungus").
As the tasks are completed and the teacher explains the reasons for the observed errors, the children’s actions gradually become correct: they learn that there must be a correspondence between the elements of sets; the spaces between drawn objects remain unfilled.
Another, most common mistake in the first lessons is trying to use both hands from the middle to the ends and violating the direction of movement of the right hand from left to right. Children must be constantly reminded of this, since the restructuring of a previously established stereotype in hand and eye movements does not occur immediately.
A sensory understanding of the correspondence of the elements of two sets and methods of action in the first lessons is provided by demonstrating an action in combination with a word. In the future, children can already complete the task only on the basis of verbal instructions. But when moving to purely verbal instructions
It is important to first maintain the previous situation  then the word, as a second signal, begins to act “on the spot,” as physiologists say. In the future, any objects are superimposed on any drawings on the o
Program
Agerelated characteristics of children's mental development
At the age of 3–4 years, the child gradually leaves the family circle. His communication becomes nonsituational.
An adult becomes for a child not only a family member, but also a bearer of a certain social function.
The child’s desire to perform the same function leads to a contradiction with his real capabilities. This contradiction is resolved through the development of play, which becomes the leading activity in preschool age.
The main feature of the game is its convention: performing certain actions with certain objects presupposes their attribution to other actions with other objects. The main content of the play of younger preschoolers is actions with toys and substitute objects. The game duration is short. Younger preschoolers are limited to playing with one or two roles and simple, undeveloped plots. Games with rules are just beginning to take shape at this age.
A child’s visual activity depends on his ideas about the subject.
At this age they are just beginning to form. Graphic images are poor. Some children's images lack detail, while others' drawings may be more detailed. Children can already use color.
Modeling is of great importance for the development of fine motor skills.
Younger preschoolers are able to sculpt simple objects under the guidance of an adult.
It is known that application has a positive effect on the development of perception. At this age, children have access to the simplest types of appliqué.
Constructive activity in early preschool age is limited to the construction of simple buildings according to a model and design.
In early preschool age, perceptual activity develops. Children move from using prestandards—individual units of perception—to sensory standards—culturally developed means of perception. By the end of primary preschool age, children can perceive up to five or more shapes of objects and up to seven or more colors, are able to differentiate objects by size, orient themselves in the space of a kindergarten group, and with a certain organization of the educational process, in the premises of the entire preschool institution.
Memory and attention develop. At the request of an adult, children can remember 34 words and 56 names of objects. By the end of primary preschool age, they are able to remember significant passages from their favorite works.
Visual and effective thinking continues to develop. At the same time, transformations of situations in some cases are carried out on the basis of targeted tests, taking into account the desired result. Preschoolers are able to establish some hidden connections and relationships between objects.
In early preschool age, imagination begins to develop, which is especially clearly manifested in play, when some objects act as substitutes for others.
The relationships between children are determined by norms and rules. As a result of targeted influence, they can learn a relatively large number of norms, which serve as the basis for evaluating their own actions and the actions of other children.
Children's relationships are clearly manifested in play activities. They rather play nearby than actively interact.
However, already at this age stable selective relationships can be observed.
Conflicts arise mainly over toys. The child's position in the peer group is largely determined by the opinion of the teacher.
In early preschool age, one can observe a subordination of motives for behavior in relatively simple situations. Conscious control of behavior is just beginning to emerge; In many ways, a child’s behavior is still situational.
At the same time, one can also observe cases of the child himself limiting his own motives, accompanied by verbal instructions. Selfesteem begins to develop, and children are largely guided by the teacher’s assessment. Their gender identification also continues to develop, which is manifested in the nature of the toys and stories they choose.